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Monday, 23 May 2022

Apep in the Amduat

The blog post for this week is written by Judit Blair, who has a Masters in Ancient Near Eastern religions and a PhD in Hebrew and the Old Testament, both from the University of Edinburgh. Judith is a Teaching Fellow at the Centre for Open Learning (COL) Edinburgh University and a Tutor at Glasgow University where she teaches such courses as Ancient Egypt and the Bible, Aspects of Ancient Near Easter Demonology, and Ancient Monsters. Judith is also a member of Egyptology Scotland and the EES.


In the New Kingdom, there were a number of underworld books; the main motif of these was the sun god’s daily death and rebirth. The main religious text in royal tombs was the Amduat, from the time of Thutmose I to the Amarna Period (Hornung 1982, 155). Two beautiful copies cover the walls of the tombs of Thutmose III and Amenhotep II (Schweizer 2010, 11).


The Amduat, “The Book of What is in the Netherworld”, or as the Egyptians referred to it, “Writing for the Hidden Chamber”, is a map of the underworld, and its spells help the king to achieve eternal justification (to become ỉmꜢḫw). The book describes the sun god’s nightly journey through the twelve hours of the night, which is a symbolic journey of the human soul. He is accompanied by various deities, some of whom live in the underworld, and the blessed dead (fig. 1). They number more than nine hundred along the two banks of the river. When the sun god passes by, they come alive, praise him, help him, and also protect him against the dangers that constantly threaten him. There are many demonic and monstrous beings at every hour; Ra’s progress is endangered all the time. The most dangerous of all is his archenemy, Apep (Schweizer 2010, 18–19). A being of chaos, “the figure of darkness”, he threatens creation itself (Morenz 2004, 204).

Fig. 1: The barque of Re in the tomb of Seti I


The sixth hour is the darkest and most dangerous time, as well as the deepest part of the underworld where the mysterious union of the sun god Ra and Osiris takes place (Schweizer 2010, 19). The vignettes for this hour depict, in the lower part, three tombs. Each of these contains parts of the solar scarab, each guarded by a fire-spitting serpent. Ra’s words, which has creative power, awakens the corpse (fig. 2). The register below, again shows the “corpse of Khepri”, this time whole. It is encircled (protected) by a five-headed snake (Hornung 1982, 155). The corpse of the sun god is at the same time the body of Osiris. At the deepest point in the journey through the underworld, Ra becomes Osiris, as his ba-soul unites with his corpse. The image of the sun god as the scarab (solar) beetle—his morning form—foreshadows the sun’s rebirth at the end of his journey (Hornung 1999, 37).

Fig. 2: Second Hour of the Amduat


The Amduat shows the tombs of many other deities, too, especially in the seventh and eighth hours of the night (Hornung 1982, 156). Hardly has the sun god passed through the dangers of the first six hours, when he meets Apep at the seventh hour (fig, 3). The creature tries to stop the sun barque.

Fig. 3: Subduing Apep

In The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt (Wilkinson 2003, 220–221) Apep is listed as one of the serpent deities, the fearsome nemesis of the sun god, although Morenz (2004, 202) has pointed out that Apep was never designated as a nṯr, “god”.  Apep is a being of chaos, “the embodiment of the powers of dissolution, darkness and non-being” (Wilkinson 2003, 221). Morenz (2004, 201) describes him as an “impressive supernatural figure”, an “enemy of order”, and an “anti-god”.

Apep is first attested in the Ninth Dynasty (First Intermediate Period) in a tomb inscription of the nomarch Ankhtifi of Moa’lla. In the middle of his self-presentation there is a reference to ts pn n ꜤꜢpp, “this sandbank of Apep”. His name is written phonetically with the regular snake determinative (Morenz 2004, 202). Later writings from the Coffin Texts symbolically “kill” the determinative, i.e., a knife is inserted into it just as we see several knives driven into his body in the vignette to the seventh hour of the Amduat (fig. 4).

Fig. 4: Seventh Hour of the Amduat

Apep is featured more frequently in the Middle Kingdom Coffin Texts (e.g., Spell 414) where he appears as either the enemy of Ra and/or of the dead attacking the barque of the sun god. He is a snake living in the water, which is why he appears as blue in some depictions (Morenz 2004, 203 and n. 19). Most of the evidence for his mythology comes from the New Kingdom funerary texts, including the Amduat and the Book of Gates. His narrative was popular from the Eighteenth through to the Twenty-first Dynasties. His important role in Ra’s nightly journey through the underworld is underlined by his depictions in tombs as a giant serpent encircling the entire burial chamber (Töyräänvuori 2013, 114).


As mentioned above, in the Amduat, the confrontation between Ra and Apep takes place during the seventh hour. Apep, pictured as a large serpent lying on his sandbank in front of the barque of Ra, is trying to stop the sun god and his entourage perhaps by swallowing up the water on which the barque travels (Hornung 1999, 38; Schweizer 2010, 140). The inscription accompanying the scene makes reference to his “terrifying roar” (Wilkinson 2003, 221).

It is said of Apep: “It is his (Apep’s) voice that leads the gods to him.” Similarly, in the Book of Gates, during the sixth hour we read:

One without its eyes is this snake,

without its nose and without its ears:

it breathes its screaming (hmhm.t),

it lives on its own shouting.                             

(Morenz 2004, 204)


Both of these texts refer to Apep as an “antisocial” and “noisy” creature who lacks “proper sensory organs” (Morenz 2004, 205).


However frightening Apep is, he cannot succeed in attacking the sun god. Ra is protected on multiple levels. There is a wall between his barque and the serpent, so he is relatively safe. Furthermore, the sun god appears on his barque encircled, and thus, protected, by the Mehen serpent. The goddess Isis and a god called the Eldest Magician stand in front of him in the prow of the barque, both using their magic against Apep. Hornung (1999, 38) and Schweizer (2010, 141) both take this god to be a form of Seth (fig. 5). Elsewhere, for example in the Book of the Dead spell 108, Seth is the one referred to as standing at the prow of the sun barque repelling Apep (Schweizer 2010, 141). This role of Seth as the defender of Ra against Apep was known before the New Kingdom, and there are several textual as well as pictorial references to it (Te Velde 1967, 99–108; Wilkinson 2003, 207).  

Fig. 5: Seth spearing Apep


Next to Isis and the Eldest Magician/Seth, there are others who help in defeating and slaughtering Apep. The monster is bound, and the coils of his body are pierced through by several knives. The goddess Serket holds his chains at the head end, and a god, referred to as “He-above-his-knives”, binds him at the other end. Behind this deity, four goddesses holding knives in their hands are oversee the process. Their names are “She-who-binds-together”, “She-who-cuts”,” She-who-punishes” and “She-who-annihilates” (Schweizer 2010, 138). Their names reflect the fate of Apep. Although defeated and destroyed, Apep would revive and start the whole cycle anew.


At the same time as Apep is being punished in the middle register, in the one above, the enemies of Osiris have also been defeated. We see kneeling figures bound and decapitated, and others also bound and lying on the ground. Similarly to Ra, Osiris is also encircled and protected by the Mehen serpent (Hornung 1999, 38).


After the seventh hour, the sun barque starts its ascent and thus, the process of regeneration of all creation begins. At the twelfth hour, just before the sun is reborn, the barque enters the body of a huge snake from its tail end. It travels through its body to come forth from its mouth (fig. 6). During this journey, the weary Ra is transformed into Khepri, the young sun god. Nut gives birth to the rejuvenated sun god in the morning, Shu lifts his day barque into the sky, and he resumes his journey through the twelve hours of the day (Schweizer 2010, 19–20).

Fig. 6: Twelfth Hour of the Amduat



Hornung, Erik 1982. Conceptions of god in ancient Egypt: the one and the many. Translated by John Baines. London; Ithaca NY: Routledge & Kegan Paul; Cornell University Press.

Hornung, Erik 1999. The ancient Egyptian books of the afterlife. Translated by David Lorton. Ithaca (NY): Cornell University Press. 

Morenz, Ludwig D. 2004. Apophis: on the origin, name, and nature of an ancient Egyptian anti-god. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 63 (3), 201–205.

Schweizer, Andreas 2010. The sungod’s journey through the netherworld: reading the ancient Egyptian Amduat. Edited by David Lorton. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Te Velde, H. 1967. Seth, god of confusion: a study of his role in Egyptian mythology and religion. Translated by G. E. van Baaren-Pape. Probleme der Ägyptologie 6. Leiden: E. J. Brill. 

Töyräänvuori, Joanna 2013. The northwest Semitic conflict myth and Egyptian sources”, in J. Scurlock and T. H. Beal, eds. Creation and chaos. A reconsideration of Hermann Gunkel’s Chaoskampf hypothesis. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns

Wilkinson, Richard H. 2003. The complete gods and goddesses of ancient Egypt. London: Thames & Hudson.  

Tuesday, 17 May 2022

The Egyptian Book of the Dead

The blog post for this week has been written by Gwynne Williams, who has been attending the Egypt Centre’s online courses over the past two years.

The book is actually entitled The Book of Going Forth by Day. I think this conveys the positive aims and attitudes that the Egyptians had for the use of and power of these writings (fig. 1). The book contained spells, instructions, names of gatekeepers, the challenges to be faced, and gave tools to the deceased to successfully complete this quest. In the beginning, those of royalty were the only ones to be prepared and have all the spells said (Pyramid Texts), repeated during preparation for the body, and provided for in order for the deceased to journey through the Underworld and reach the Afterlife. The walls of the ruler’s tomb were decorated in richly painted, engraved, carved words and images and would include adorned votive items left within the tomb to be used by the deceased. The spells demonstrated the idea of breath re-animating the person—red ink passages were spoken aloud, and black ink was narrative.  

Fig. 1: Book of the Dead papyrus of Ankhhapi


The divine nature of the ruler held the people’s expectation that the ruler’s job was to ensure the continuation of the cycles of life. The ruler’s journey ensured the accessibility to the Afterlife, kept the Nile flowing, maintaining the safety and success of its people. Everything from the health of the land, the stars, seasons, to the safety of its people hinged on the deceased being successful. The Egyptians believed that the death of their rulers and their journey would ensure life continued as normal. These transitions of rule, from the death of ruler to the identification and coronation of a new ruler, would cause uncertainty and fear about the future within the people. Through the spells, preparation of the body and tomb and then later into the papyrus created, decoration added to coffins, the use of amulets, cloth wrappings, their items and words, everything needed would be provided to the deceased (fig. 2). The ruler would journey also to appease and celebrate the Gods to ensure favour for the land—the seasons, the Nile, security of its people against attack, and giving prosperity to their people.

Fig. 2: Heart scarab with Chapter 30B

These were pragmatic people—they ensured the deceased would be able to use their faculties, have food, not have to work, and even ensure the food would taste good, and that the person would not spend eternity upside down (this last one tickles my fancy). A few of the spells gave the deceased ruler the ability to change form into birds, thus allowing freedom of movement, and seemed to give special powers to be used during the journey (fig. 3). These would aid the deceased to navigate the Underworld, recognize the obstacles and the gates they would encounter to pass through to reach the Afterlife.

Fig. 3: Shroud of Hapi with transformation spells

The Book of Coming Forth by Day also created the ideas for what the Afterlife would be like, the journey to get there, and was general guidance to the best actions, practices, and ideals for the people. The process ensured the accessibility to the Afterlife, kept the Nile flowing, maintained the safety, success and growth of the people and their lands (fig. 4). The Book evolved and became accessible to more people, generally those who held positions of power, titles of office or religion, and had wealth. 

Fig. 4: Sennedjem in the Field of Reeds

My favourite section is Spell 125 referred to as The Negative Confession or, more accurately, The Declaration of Innocence. This section was intended to be recited by the deceased when they entered the Hall of Judgement and stood face to face, with Osiris, backed up by a further forty-two other divine judges, all of whom the deceased had to name (fig. 5). The weighing of the heart, this final judgement, to ensure its lightness, or purity, evolved to be expressed with an amulet in the shape of a scarab—currently identified as the heart scarab and was added to the body and would serve as the family’s way of vouching for the good character, behaviour, and life of the deceased. The deceased then had to make a statement asserting their purity and worthiness as their heart was weighed against the feather of Maat. Rather than boasting about the actions they had taken, this statement consisted of them confirming that they were not guilty of a range of evil deeds. I imagine a few fingers would be crossed and hidden behind the back of the deceased as the statements were all encompassing thus absolving the deceased of any wrongdoings. 

Fig. 5: Chapter 125
(British Museum:

As time passed, while the population grew, technology and tools developed so that papyrus became more accessible and was created in multitudes. The name of the deceased to be added later. The population had grown and the culture had developed such crafts and skills on a size more accessible (fig. 6). There were scribes and illustrators and craftspeople who made the paper, ink, images, thus the journey became tangible to the people. A measure of wealth and status. An insurance policy.

Fig. 6: Mummy bandage of Djedhor

Monday, 9 May 2022

The Cannibal Hymn

The blog post for this week is written by Yvonne Buskens-Frenken, from the Netherlands. She is a member of the Dutch Egyptology society Mehen and a former student of Egyptology at Manchester University (Certificate 2015 and Diploma 2017). While Yvonne has never been to the Egypt Centre before, she hopes to visit in the near future, perhaps with other Mehen members.

Last week, a new online course was launched by the Egypt Centre called The Books of the Afterlife, which is hosted by Dr Ken Griffin at The Egypt Centre. Over the next five weeks, we will be discussing the Pyramid Texts, the Book of the Dead, the Amduat, the Book of Gates, the Book of Caverns, the Book of the Earth, the Litany of Re, and the Books of the Sky. For the ancient Egyptians, death was really a part of life. Planning for death and the afterlife was something that should be undertaken during one’s lifetime. And for the navigation into the journey to the afterlife, a collection of texts/spells were produced. Each of these was intended to overcome or avoid obstacles and dangers all for the protection of the body parts of the deceased.

The course started this week with an introduction to the Pyramid Texts and the Coffin Texts. I would like to highlight one particular section of the Pyramid Texts in this post, which is known as the Cannibal Hymn.

Fig. 1: Burial chamber of Unas (photo by Jan Koek)

The Pyramid Texts emerge in the Fifth Dynasty (c. 2400–2300 BC), at the end of the Old Kingdom. These texts are the oldest Egyptian religious writings, although the language and grammar suggest that these texts could be several hundred years older. The Pyramid of Unas in Saqqara is the first pyramid with such Pyramid Texts (fig. 1). A collection of 283 spells are identified in his tomb and all 283 are found in other sources as well, except for spell 200. The spells are carved in sunk relief with blue pigment (fig. 2). These spells mostly related to the king’s relationship with Osiris and the Sun and focus on his eternal existence after death: the ba of the deceased needs to reunite with its ka to become an akh; the offering spells provide a source for the ka; and the Resurrection Ritual serves to release the ba from its attachment to the mummified body.

Fig. 2: Pyramid Texts of Unas (photo by Yvonne Buskens)

Spells 273 and 274 (also called utterances) of the Pyramid Texts are only attested in the pyramids of Unas and Teti. Their content has intrigued Egyptologists ever since their discovery almost 150 years ago (fig 3). The texts are located on the eastern wall of the antechamber of the two pyramids. One wonders why it was only recorded in these two? Did the ancient Egyptians really practice cannibalism? Evidence of cannibalism in pharaonic Egypt is scarce. We do have evidence of defleshing during the Predynastic Period, but this does not mean that the dead were eaten. An ivory label dating to the reign of the First Dynasty king Djer possibly depicts the killing of a kneeling figure in a ritual setting (fig. 4). It is very difficult to interpret this scene as there is no explanatory text or suitable parallels: possibly a ritual killing that took place during the funeral of the king (van Dijk 2022). However, it is not hard no proof that it relates to cannibalism.

Fig. 3: Antechamber wall with Cannibal Hymn

There are actually more references to cannibalism in the Egyptian texts (Eyre 2002, 161) as in consuming enemies or eating to survive. The Egyptian dead wished to eat and not be eaten in the afterlife. For example, in Pyramid Text spell 665, the resurrected king is addressed as a “unique star who eats his enemy”, who is “saved from Kherty; he lives on the hearts of men”. The same general theme is developed in the “fisherman” spells of the Coffin Texts: ‘Oh Great One, I have not been carried off. I have not been eaten. I am not for eating […] yesterday or for the catch of today. You do not catch me.” (Eyre 2002, 161). Another reference to eating is the text in the tomb of Ankhtifi, which dates to the First Intermediate Period. In his autobiographical text, he says children were being eaten. However, this text must be interpreted in context as Egypt was in the grip of famine (fig. 5).

Fig. 4: Djer label (Cairo JdE 70114)

According to Eyre, in his study of the Cannibal Hymn, “the theme of cannibalism is treated in a brief or allusive way in other Egyptian rituals and that the metaphors used in the text are familiar, if characteristically implicit themes in the symbolic context of sacrifice and the offering meal at all periods in Egypt” (Eyre 2002, 161). So what was the content of the text of the Cannibal Hymn? The text can be divided into five sections, which will be summarised in the following paragraphs. 

Fig. 5: The nomarch Ankhtifi (photo by Yvonne Buskens)

1. Introduction
The Cannibal Hymn begins with upheaval as the cosmos is overwhelmed by the appearance of the king in the afterlife: he arrives in his full glory and he is not only the begetter, like his father Atum, but actually mightier than  Atum. The gods are his ancestors. The issue here is his power as the pharaoh is the Lord of Wisdom, whose mother doesn’t know his name. The king’s attributes include elements of power, the guiding-serpent on his forehead, and a trunk on his neck, which give him the ability to defeat his enemies.

2. Preparing the divine meal
It is in this section that the theme of power and authority develops into the “cannibal” section. Although it is explicitly stated, the king lives on “every god”, a series of deities seem to escape the dinner-pots and even assist in preparing the meal. Motifs of the slaughter, processing, and consumption are used here as a metaphor for the transfer of the various powers from other gods to the king. The “magic” of the gods, and their manifestations of power such as their ba and akh, are “transferred” into the belly of the king. The eating makes the king stronger and he becomes more divine.

3. The divine meal

The text as a whole is about the preservation of the king’s food, and his slaughter of his enemies, ending with his identification as the victorious Bull of the Sky.

4. After the meal

After the meal, the king is more powerful than before, and his true essence is revealed: he has become a “great power”. He is now the head of the gods, older than the oldest. At this point, he reaches eternal repetition and everlastingness of his existence. He finally seizes the ultimate power, encircled by all possible horizons, just like the sun god. As such, he has attained the ultimate goal of being reborn again. 

5. Confirmation

By the divine act of eating his own divine kind, “cooked for the king from their bones”, the pharaoh now has all the power of the gods in him and can rise eternally and last forever: “The doers of ill deeds have no power to destroy, the chosen seat of Pharaoh, among the living in this land. Forever and ever”. The context is the assertion that the king is, or has become, the primeval sun god.


Allen, James P. 2012. Cannibal Spell for King Unis, ca. 2325 BCE. In Puchner, Martin, Suzanne Akbari, Wiebke Denecke, Vinay Dharwadker, Barbara Fuchs, Caroline Levine, Pericles Lewis, and Emily Wilson (eds), The Norton anthology of world literature. Volume A, 26–28. New York; London: W. W. Norton.

Bělohoubková, Dana, Jiří Janák, and Marie Peterková Hlouchová 2019. The king of the Cannibal Hymn as the new creator. In Piacentini, Patrizia and Alessio Delli Castelli (eds), Old Kingdom art and archaeology 7: proceedings of the international conference; Università degli studi di Milano 3–7 July 2017 1, 334–341. Milano: Pontremoli.

Eyre, Christopher 2002. The Cannibal Hymn: a cultural and literary study. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.

Goebs, Katja 2004. The Cannibal Spell: continuity and change in the Pyramid Text and Coffin Text versions. In Bickel, Susanne and Bernard Mathieu (eds), D’un monde à l’autre: Textes des Pyramides & Textes des Sarcophages. Actes de la table ronde internationale, “Textes des Pyramides versus Textes des Sarcophages”, IFAO – 24–26 septembre 2001, 143–173. Le Caire: Institut français d’archéologie orientale.

van Dijk, Jacobus 2022. Ritual homicide in ancient Egypt. In Innemée, Karel C. (ed.), The value of a human life. Ritual killing and human sacrifice in antiquity, 41–52. PALMA 26. Leiden.

Monday, 2 May 2022

Celebrating the Retirement of Dr Carolyn Graves-Brown

Last Friday (29 April), the Egypt Centre celebrated the retirement of Dr Carolyn Graves-Brown, who had been Curator of the Egypt Centre, Swansea University, since 1997 (fig. 1). Over the past twenty-five years, Carolyn has brilliantly led the museum, transforming it into an internationally recognised institution. Carolyn had prior experience moving museum collections to new premises (Littlehampton Museum and Neath Museum), which put her in good stead as she arrived in Swansea to find the museum still didn’t have cases and the objects were laid out in the old Wellcome Museum in Keir Hardie Building. Yet by September 1998, cases were full, labels were written, and the Egypt Centre was ready to receive its first visitors.

Fig. 1

During the event, guests heard speeches from Lori Havard (Interim Associate Director: Head of Libraries) and Dr Ersin Hussein (Lecturer in Ancient History). It was great to have so many people in attendance to celebrate with Carolyn and to give her the send-off she deserved (fig. 2). 

Fig. 2: Lori delivering her speech

Carolyn has many research interests, including Egyptian dynastic lithics, material culture, archaeological theory, museology, gender studies, and the religious significance of technology in ancient Egypt. Whilst working full-time, she undertook a part-time PhD in Egyptology at University College London on the topic of The Ideological Significance of Flint in Dynastic Egypt. During her time at the Egypt Centre, Carolyn published monographs (fig. 3), edited books, and contributed many chapters in other publications (see bibliography below). Carolyn wanted a wide audience to know about the museum and she gave talks and lectures to local, national, and international audiences. Carolyn wrote and delivered undergraduate and postgraduate modules for Classics and Ancient History, and collaborated with colleagues across the university, nationally, and internationally to share research.

Fig. 3

Carolyn ensured the Egypt Centre was an accredited museum setting high standards in all areas. She oversaw the redevelopment of the galleries, adding new cases, open storage, and enhancing displays with loans of objects to fill gaps such as the Woking College loan and the British Museum loan of the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus. Carolyn ensured the museum objects were given a platform and so the Egypt Centre catalogue was the first complete collection to appear on Culture Grid.

Access for all is Carolyn’s biggest legacy. Carolyn created popular and accessible travelling exhibitions such as the Women’s Exhibition, she organised very successful international conferences with popular topics and diverse speakers attracting a wide audience. Employing staff, with no museum experience, from non-traditional museum visitor backgrounds as well as encouraging volunteers of all ages and abilities. Carolyn encouraged staff to develop new and existing skills and have free rein to be creative: on occasions, this involved taking Carolyn out of her comfort zone with a mummy trial, Fun Days, tombolas and raffles, children’s birthday parties, judging art competitions (fig. 4), and allowing the creation of a noisy under 5s creative play area!

Fig. 4

Carolyn set up the Friends of the Egypt Centre group, Textile study group, volunteer accredited course: Egypt Centre Ambassadors, and she even did the Nile Cycle Challenge (fig. 5) between the 13th and 20th October 2003 cycling over 200 miles in 5 days (one of the days cycling 77 miles through the desert!) raising £4000. One accolade achieved to recognise this work was to be shortlisted for the Times Higher Award for widening participation!

Fig. 5

This quote from Carolyn’s speech during the Egypt Centre’s tenth-anniversary celebration in 2008 is very apt:

“And so, when developing Egypt Centre, we decided where possible to allow a direct contact with the past and to at least try to remember the humanity behind our objects. These are objects which belonged to real people, people with hopes and dreams, people often bogged down in petty squabbles or delighted by small successes, in fact people like us. This was at least part of the reason behind our unfashionable move not to display human remains. It was also why we introduced boards encouraging visitors to recite the offering formula in the museum; and it was at least partly why we introduced the handling trays.

The Egypt Centre has always striven to involve the community in our work, to act as a bridge between academia and the general public. The Egypt Centre is a team. We have had many successes; we are a leader in our field and are frequently asked for advice from larger and better-funded museums. Our ideas, from dummy mummies and torches in galleries to Children’s University and math’s displays, have all been emulated elsewhere. You all should feel very proud of your achievements.”

Fig. 6: Carolyn's final Egypt Centre staff photo

Thank you, Carolyn, for all you have done, and we are so very proud of YOUR achievements! We wish you every happiness in your retirement from all your colleagues and friends at the Egypt Centre, Taliesin, and Academic Services (fig. 7).

Fig. 7




2018. Daemons and Spirits in Ancient Egypt. University of Wales Press: Cardiff.

2010. Dancing for Hathor: Women in Ancient Egypt. Hambledon Continuum: London and New York.


Edited Books

2015. Egyptology in the Present: Experiential and Experimental Methods in Archaeology. Classical Press of Wales: Swansea.

2008. Sex and Gender in Ancient Egypt. Don Your Wig for A Joyful Hour. Classical Press of Wales: Swansea.


Book Chapters and Journal Articles

2015. Dagger-like Flint Implements in Bronze Age Egypt. In Friedman, C.J. and Eriksen, B.V. (eds.) Flint Daggers in Prehistoric Europe. Oxbow Books: Oxford. 19–31.

2015. Sexuality: Ancient Egypt. In Whelehan, P and Bolin, A. (eds.), The International Encyclopedia of Human Sexuality. John Wiley and Sons: Oxford. 1115–1354.

2015. Flint and Forts: The Role of Flint in Middle Kingdom–New Kingdom Weaponry. In Harrison, T.B. and Banning, E.B. (eds), Walls of the Prince. Egyptian Interactions with Southwest Asia in Antiquity: Essays in Honour of John S. Holladay, Jr., Brill: Leiden. 37–59.

2014. A Gazelle, a Lute Player and Bes: Three Ring Bezels from Amarna. In Dodson, A., Johnston, J.J. and Monkhouse, W. (eds.), A Good Scribe and an Exceedingly Wise Man: Studies in Honour of W.J. Tait. Golden House Publications: London, 113–126.

2013. Luster, Flint and Arsenical Copper in Dynastic Egypt. Journal of Lithic Technology, 38/3, 150–160.

2012 Review of Frandsen, J.P. 2009. Incestuous and Close-kin Marriage in Ancient Egypt and Persia. An Examination of the Evidence, Chronique d’Égypte, 87, 292–296.

2008. Licking Knives and Stone Snakes: The Ideology of Flint in Ancient Egypt. In Martinón-Torres, M. and Rehren, T. (eds.), Archaeology History and Science. Integrating Approaches to Ancient Materials, Left Coast Press: Walnut Creek, 37–60.

2008. Museums and Widening Participation: A View from the Egypt Centre. In Kop, R., Jones, R., McCallum, J., Payne, R., Trotman, C. (eds.), Changing Landscapes. Conference Proceedings University of Wales Swansea 11th and 12th April 2005, Community of the Valleys Partnership, The Department of Continuing Adult Education: Swansea, 168–179.

2006. Flint and Life Crises in Pharaonic Egypt. In Dann, R.J. (ed.), Current Research in Egyptology 2004. Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Symposium which Took Place at the University of Durham January 2004, Oxbow Books: Oxford, 68–83.

2006. Emergent Flints. In Szpakowska, K. (ed.), Through a Glass Darkly. Magic, Dreams and Prophecy in Ancient Egypt. Classical Press of Wales: Swansea, 47–62.

2008. Flint and the Northern Sky. In Schneider, T. and Szpakowska, K. (eds.), Egyptian Stories. A British Egyptological Tribute to Alan B. Lloyd on the Occasion of His Retirement. Alter Orient und Altes Testament Veröffentlichungen zur Kultur und Geschichte des Alten Orients und des Alten Testaments: Münster, 111–137.

2005. The Spitting Goddess and the Stony Eye: Divinity and Flint in Pharaonic Egypt. In Piquette, K. and Love, S. (eds.), Current Research in Egyptology 2003: Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Symposium which Took Place at the Institute of Archaeology, University College London, 1819 January 2003. Oxbow Books: Oxford, 57–70.

2004. Fire-stone, Magic Serpents and Butchery Knives: The Role of Flint in Dynastic Egypt. Ancient Egypt 4/1, 34–37.

2004. The Birth of the Egypt Centre. Discussions in Egyptology 59, 23–30.

2003. Toot and Come In! Access in a University Museum. Y Mag, Jan 2003, 6.